By Julia K. Parrish, William M. Hamner
Colleges of fish, flocks of birds, and swarms of bugs are examples of 3-dimensional aggregation. masking either invertebrate and vertebrate species, the authors examine this pervasive organic phenomenon via numerous disciplines, from physics to arithmetic to biology. the 1st part is dedicated to many of the tools, generally optical and acoustic, used to assemble third-dimensional facts through the years. the second one part specializes in analytical tools used to quantify trend, team kinetics, and interindividual interactions in the team. The part on behavioral ecology and evolution offers with the features of aggregative habit from the viewpoint of an inherently egocentric person member. the ultimate part makes use of versions to clarify how team dynamics on the person point creates emergent trend on the point of the crowd.
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Additional resources for Animal Groups in Three Dimensions: How Species Aggregate
It is our sincere belief that an interactive, multidisciplinary approach will take us farther in understanding how and why animals aggregate than merely pursuing a strictly biological investigation. It is also more fun. Part one Imaging and measurement 2 Methods for three-dimensional sensing of animals JULES S. 1 Introduction Most animals have the ability to sense their world three-dimensionally. Using visual, pressure-related, and chemical cues, which are filtered through sophisticated neural circuitry and central processing, animals continually measure the distance to and shape of objects in their environment.
X-ray, computerized tomography) approximate this space as 1000 sets of 1000 X 1000 matrices, which can be computed quite easily. Methods for three-dimensional sensing 19 Let us imagine then, that we are interested in examining a state vector, S(X,t), at some number of three-dimensional locations, with some spatial resolution, AX and some temporal resolution, At. The following sections will indicate how this has been done in the past and how some of the emerging techniques will contribute to our knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of animal aggregations in the future.
However, there is no optical disparity from very different images. On the other hand, given substantial optical disparity from very different views, the accuracy in the reconstruction would be great if similar points could be identified. Osborn (Ch. 3) reviews optical triangulation methods extensively. g. g. fluorescence imaging). At present, these technologies have yet to be applied to track an individual, or group of individuals, as they move through space and time. An interesting result of my broad review of these many approaches to three-dimensional mensuration is that almost none of them meet our specific goal of simultaneous good resolution in both time and space.
Animal Groups in Three Dimensions: How Species Aggregate by Julia K. Parrish, William M. Hamner