By Lokesh Bhattacharyya, Jeffrey S. Rohrer
This can be a complete resource of data at the software of ion chromatography (IC) within the research of pharmaceutical medicines and biologicals. This publication, with participants from academia, pharma, the biotech undefined, and software production, provides the several views, event, and services of the concept leaders of IC in a entire demeanour. It explores power IC functions in several elements of product improvement and qc checking out. additionally, an appendix part offers details on serious actual and chromatographic parameters on the topic of IC and data on present brands of IC platforms, columns, and different parts.
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Extra resources for Applications of Ion Chromatography in the Analysis of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products
3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 61 of the retention mechanism are introduced, based predominantly on the existence of “pores” on the surface of the stationary phase. Analytes diffuse into these “pores” containing occluded water under the effects of concentration gradients, while simultaneously undergoing repulsion effects from the ﬁxed charges inside the pores. These two processes determine the degree of retention of an analyte. IEC is seen to be based on a permeation retention process, but differs from other such processes (such as size-exclusion chromatography) in that the suggested mechanism REFERENCES 45 introduces variable permeation volume, combined with electrostatic repulsion out of the permeation volume.
The high level of retention of these species is usually explained by the presence of an additional, adsorptive retention mechanism resulting from hydrophobic or π -π interactions between the analyte and the unfunctionalized portions of the stationary phase [35,36]. High pH-dependence of the retention times of these species has been explained as the consequence of the effects of the changing degree of dissociation of the analyte on these adsorption processes. An organic acid having strong afﬁnity towards microporous, fully sulfonated PS-DVB stationary phases is benzoic acid, which shows very strong retention in comparison to aliphatic mono- and di-carboxylic acids having similar pKa values.
J. Chromatogr. A 2002;968:101–111. 9. Yang L, Liu L, Olsen BA, Nussbaum MA. The determination of oxalic acid, oxamic acid, and oxamide in a drug substance by ion-exclusion chromatography. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 2000;22:487–493. 10. Haddad PR, Jackson PE. Ion Chromatography: Principles and Applications, Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1990. p 195. 11. Harlow GA, Morman DH. Automatic Ion Exclusion-Partition Chromatography of Acids. Anal. Chem. 1964;36:2438–2442. 12. Medved AL, Ivanov AA, Shpigun OA. Ion-exclusion chromatography of organic acids: Regularities in the retention of aliphatic carboxylic acids.
Applications of Ion Chromatography in the Analysis of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products by Lokesh Bhattacharyya, Jeffrey S. Rohrer