By Dag O. Hessen, Lars J. Tranvik (auth.), Prof. Dr. Dag O. Hessen, Dr. Lars J. Tranvik (eds.)
Humic elements take place in every kind of aquatic platforms, yet are relatively very important in northern, coniferous parts. They strongly regulate the aquatic ecosystems and in addition represent a big challenge within the ingesting water supply.
This quantity covers all elements of aquatic humic components, from their beginning and chemical homes, their results on gentle and nutrient regimes and biogeochemical biking, to their position concerning organisms, productiveness and meals net association from micro organism to fish. specific emphasis is paid to carbon biking and foodstuff net association in humic lakes, yet facets of marine carbon biking regarding humus are handled as well.
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Extra info for Aquatic Humic Substances: Ecology and Biogeochemistry
0 /. : ~. ' ~. 0\ • 0' o· .!!! "0 ~c 10 ----. -. , 0 ~ D.. '. Fulvic acid ,. 12. Percent weight loss of willow leaf packs under snow pack during winter and spring; concentration of leachable dissolved organic carbon (DOC) per gram dry weight of leafpack; and percent of leachable DOC as hydrophobic neutral acids and as fulvic acid 32 Diane M. McKnight and George R. 3. Residence time (age) of organic carbon (years) Terrestrial Forests Prairies Aquatic Groundwater Biscayne aquifer Fox Hills-Laramie Wetland Okefenokee swamp Lakes and rivers Pacific Ocean Autotrophs Humic substances 20-200 200-8000 a 200-8000 a 10-200 «1 «1 4000c a Stevenson (1985) - b Thurman (1985) - c Malcolm (1990) Clearly, an important tool to evaluate the age of aquatic humus is 14C dating.
Aquatic humus can be derived from plant/soil organic material and from microbial/algal organic material. The importance of these two general sources exerts major control on chemical characteristics of aquatic humus. Dissolved fulvic acid can be produced by processes acting on fresh litter and on senescent algal material and by progressive long-term degradation of organic material in soils and sediments. Thus, in many aquatic ecosystems, dissolved humic substances are probably a mixture of young and old materials, and this mixture changes with the seasonal dynamics of the ecosystem.
Examples of chemical structures of constituents of plant and microbial material which could serve as precursor organic material in aquatic humus formation. A Chlorophyll a; B carotenoid (B-carotene found in chlorophytes); C polysaccharide (agarose found in marine red algal); D sterol (ergosterol found in some chlorophytes). (Stewart 1974) Sources and Age of Aquatic Humus 23 sized by microorganisms and released in lignin degradation. Polymerization involving phenols has been shown to be accelerated by the presence of transition metals in solution, by metal oxides, and by the presence of clays (Steinberg and Muenster 1985).
Aquatic Humic Substances: Ecology and Biogeochemistry by Dag O. Hessen, Lars J. Tranvik (auth.), Prof. Dr. Dag O. Hessen, Dr. Lars J. Tranvik (eds.)